Surgeons, anesthesiologists, and cardiologists conduct conversations with patients, in which psychotherapeutically mediated and psychoprophylactically oriented information is provided in an accessible form about the goals and possibilities of surgical intervention, the safety of modern methods of anesthesia, the characteristics of the postoperative condition and rehabilitation tasks, the possibilities and advantages of returning to work. The most advanced and aesthetic model of the implant is demonstrated and information about its reliability is provided. For the same purpose, stands are set up in the departments, on which, using drawings, photographs with laconic inscriptions, the main methods of treatment and rehabilitation are described, as well as examples of the high effectiveness of the methods used.
The sedative-mobilizing stage lasts 2 - 4 weeks, starting in the intensive care unit and continuing in the surgical department. Stage tasks. 1) reassurance of the operated patients, 2) formation of an adequate attitude towards the postoperative state, 3) development of active personal positions. Among the methods of psychotherapy, psychotraining according to Skumin, which includes five exercises, is effective.
The stage of active psychosocial readaptation lasts 6 - 8 weeks. It begins in the heart surgery clinic and continues in the sanatorium. Stage tasks. 1) complex therapy of psychopathological manifestations, 2) correction of rental personal positions, 3) formation and strengthening of adequate psychological attitudes. In addition to the psychotherapist, doctors of other specialties - surgeons, therapists, nutritionists, physiotherapists, health culture specialists, exercise therapy - take part in the conversations. In order to form an optimistic attitude towards the future in patients, an organizational technique is practiced, such as inviting patients to discuss certain topics with good rehabilitation results.
- The use of this system of prevention and therapy ensures, according to the N. M. Amosov Institute, effective prevention and timely correction of mental disorders.
- In the group in which the described measures were applied, Skumin's syndrome developed after 2 - 3 months.
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A syndrome is a stable set of symptoms united by a single pathogenetic mechanism. including psichichesk, begins with a symptom. However, a symptom is a multi-valued sign, and it is impossible to diagnose the disease on its basis. An individual symptom acquires diagnostic significance only in its totality and in relation to other symptoms, that is, in a symptom complex - a syndrome" (A.V. Snezhnevsky, 1983). The diagnostic significance of the syndrome is due to the fact that the symptoms included in it are in a natural internal connection. Syndrome is the status of the patient at the time of examination.
Conditions manifested by functional (reversible) non-psychotic disorders. They can be of different nature. A patient suffering from neurosis (psychogenic disorder) experiences constant emotional stress. Its resources, protective forces, are depleted. The same thing happens in a patient suffering from almost any physical disease. Therefore, many of the symptoms observed in neurotic and neurosis-like syndromes are similar. This is rapid fatigue with a feeling of psychological and physical discomfort, accompanied by anxiety, restlessness and internal tension. At the slightest reason they intensify. They are accompanied by emotional lability and increased irritability, early insomnia, distractibility, etc.